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General Electric
lamp bulletin

incandescent
mercury
fluorescent

January 1956

Original for sale: $200


front cover

front cover inside- lamp design progress

page 1- title page
- table of contents


page 2- General Electric's "tree of light"

page 3- production of light

page 4- smallest lamp / largest lamp

page 5- the incandescent lamp

page 6- biology of a lamp

page 7- lamp making / lamp quality

page 8- the filament lamp
- gas
- lead-in wires
- stem press
- exhaust tube
- support wires
- button
- heat deflecting disc
- fuse
- base
- bulb


page 9- cont...

page 10- lamp design considerations
- tungsten filament
- lamp efficiency
- effect of frequency
- power factor
- gas-filled lamps


page 11- lamp design considerations (cont...)
- Inrush current of tungsten filament lamps


page 12- tables;
- operating data on standard lamps
- luminous and thermal charcteristics


page 13- graphs:
- cooling effects of lead wires and supports
- gas loss and wattage
- lamp efficiency vs. design voltage


page 14- graphs (cont...)
- resistance vs. temperature
- filament dimensions vs. lamp wattage


page 15- graphs (cont...)
- lamp efficiency vs. lamp wattage
- lamp efficiency vs. filament temperature


page 16- lamp economics
- cost of producing light
- useful life
- group replacement


page 17- life characteristics and renewal rate
- depreciation throughout life
- mortality curve
- smashing point
- renewal rate (theoretical)
- renewal rate (probable variation from theoretical)


page 18- lamp life design and operating voltage
- service tests by users
- central station voltages
- lamp life and cost of light


page 19- voltage characteristic curves and exponenets

page 20- lamp temperatures
- bulb blistering
- thermal cracks


page 21- maximum bulb temperature
- bulb and socket temperatures (at different bulb angles)
- lamp temperature vs voltage
- temperature gradient in air


page 22- base and socket tepmeratures
- hazardous locations
- lamps for refrigeration rooms


page 23- bipost bases
- mechanical bases
- bulb blackening


page 24- lamp types and design features
- lamp availability and listing
- lamp identification and ordering abbreviations
- bulb shape and finishes
- bulb finishes and colors
- white bowl lamps
- daylight lamps
- colored lamps
- natural colored glass lamps
-


page 25- lamps for specialized applications
- bake oven lamps
- rough-service lamps
- viration-service lamps
- lumiline and showcase lamps
- three-lite lamps
- sign lamps
- spotlight and floodlight lamps
- yellow lamps for insect control


page 26- voltage classes
- high-voltage lamps, 220 to 260 volt circuits
- low-voltage lamps, 6 to 64 volts circuits
- street-railway lamps, 525 to 625 volt circuits
- christmans tree series buring lamps


page 27- performance curves of series lamps
- characteristic curves
- depreciation during life
- lamp failure characteristics
- multiple burning street lighting lamps


page 28- reflector type lamps
- silvered bowl lamp
- outside silvering process


page 29- reflector and projector types
- application considerations


page 30- sealed beam types - automotive and low voltage application
- accurate reflector contour
- precise filament positioning
- effeciency and maintenance
- lamp wattage


page 31- miniature lamps
- design life and efficiency


page 32- lamps for picture projection
- lamp types
- lamp filament forms
- coil
- coiled-coil
- monoplane
- biplane
- recommended line of projection lamps


page 33- lamp wattage and screen illumination
- sound reproducer lamps


page 34- lamps for photography
- color temperature rating
- photoflood lamps
- photo enlarger service
- other photographic light sources
- fluorescent lamps
- flashtubes


page 35- photoflash lamps
- light control and utilization
- lumen-time characteristics


page 36- infrared heating and drying lamps
- tubular quartz infrared lamps


page 37- lamps and the spectrum
- spectral energy measurements
- the visible spectrum
- ultraviolet radiation
- ultraviolet energy measurements
- infrared radiation


page 38/39- lamps and the spectrum color chart
- electromagnetic spectrum
- radiation domain of electric lamps
- spectral energy distribution of lamps
- effects of radiation from lamps
- cosmic rays
- gamma rays
- x rays
- ultr-violet
- infrared
- radio waves
- electric waves
page 40- spectral energy distribution of typcial lamps
- radiant energy transmission of various types of lamp bulbs and filters


page 41- mercury lamps and related types
- gaseous conduction lamps
- ozone-producing
- germicidal lamps
- sunlamps
- black light lamps
- photochemical lamps
- glow lamps
- flashtubes
- sodium lamps


page 42- photos - mercury lamps principal types
- black light and special service lamps
- 400 watt general service lamps
- 1000 watt general service lamps
- RS sunlamp


page 43- mercury lamp design and operating characteristics
- efficiency and spectral control
- transformer and ballasting requirements


page 44- spectral distribution, watts radiated
- chart:
- mercury lamp physical and electrical characteristics and radiant energy
- radiant energy, total watts in indicated wavelength bands
- summary


page 45- chart: (cont...)
- mercury lamp physical and electrical characteristics and radiant energy
- radiant energy, total watts in indicated wavelength bands
- summary


page 46- transformers and reactors
- transformers for mercury lamps - 60 cycles


page 47- voltages and starting characteristics
- voltage requirements
- lamp starting


page 48- mercury lamps -general characteristics
- construction features and operating principles
- starting and restarting
- life and light output


page 49- general service types and applications
- H-100
- H-250
- H-400
- H-1000
- H-3000
- H-1000 (H-6)


page 50- photochemical lamps
- electrical and radiant energy characteristics


page 51- ozone producing lamps
- ozone lamps
- lamp operation


page 52- germicidal lamps

page 53- mercury-vapor sunlight lamps
- sunlamp types
- type RS sunlamp
- sunlamp ratings and application data


page 54- black light lamps
- lamp output ratings
- light absorbing filters
- lamp characteristics
- black light uses
- approximate milliwats or fluoren output of black light lamps


page 55- neon and argon glow lamps
- life
- performance characteristics
- volt-ampere characteristics
- the nature of the radiation from glow lamps
- glow lamps, 105-125 volts


page 56- xenon flashtubes
- power source requirements
- flash frequency
- flashtube light output rating
- flash characteristics


page 57- sodium-vapor lamps
- sodium lab-arc


page 58- color temperature

page 59- fluorescent lamps
- 2537-a radiation
- phosphors
- fluorescent chemicals


page 60- fluorescent lamp summary
- types, and sizes available
- general line
- slimline
- rapid start
- circline


page 61- fluorescent lamps

page 62- lamp design considerations
- efficiency losses in standard warm white lamps


page 63- design relationships
- phosphor response
- lamp length vs efficiency
- efficiency relations - lamp current vs bulb size
- effect of bulb-wall temperature


page 64- type of lamps
- emission of electrons
- types of cathodes
- cold cathode characteristics
- hot cathode characteristics
- lamps for preheat starting with separate switch starts
- rapid start lamps
- instant start lamps


page 65- fluorescent lamp life and depreciation
- lamp life
- light-output depreciation


page 66- ballast circuits requiring replaceable starts
- typical tulamp circuit
- lampholders for general line fluorescent lamps


page 67- preheat cathode starting switches
- starter types, principals of operation
- glow-switch starters
- GE watch-dog manual reset starters
- thermal-switch starters
- replaceable starters


page 68- lamp operation without separate starters
- trigger-start and rapid-start lamp circuits
- rapid-start grounding precautions
- dimming and flashing adaptability


page 69- instant-start balasts circuits
- lamp holders for slimline fluorescent lamps


page 70- ballast design principles
- lamp design voltage
- ballast operating temperatures


page 71- ballast and lamp operating characteristics
- noise ratings of ballasts
- supply voltage


page 72- types of ballasts
- high power factor single-lamp ballasts
- uncorrected power factor single-lamp ballasts
- tulamp ballasts
- forlamp ballasts
- triger-start and rapid start ballasts
- instant-start ballasts
- series-type ballasts
- representative list of 60-cycle, 110-120 volt ballasts
- single lamp ballasts using starters
- multiple lamp ballasts using starters
- trigger-start ballast, no starters required
- rapid-start ballasts, no starters required
- slimline lamp ballasts, no starters required


page 73- resistance ballast operation
- direct current operation
- high frequency operation


page 74- high frequency operation (cont...)
- fluorescent lamp dimming


page 75- fluorescent lamp dimming (cont...)
- lamp performance in service
- performance and service problems
- radiant heating effects
- frequency and stroboscopic effects
- flicker of fluorescent lamps


page 76- swirling and spiraling
- under and over voltage
- outline of problems encountered in service
- damaged lamps
- lamp appearance in service
- end-blackening


page 77- lamps and circuits using separate starters
- preheat start circuits


page 78- lamp temperature and efficiency
- low-temperature starting of fluorescent lamps


page 79- radio interference from fluorescent lamps

page 80: blank

back cover inside: other publications on lamps and applications

back cover

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